Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world. The majority of men do not find any benefit from these goods and are less likely to invest in them. The central and state governments in India have noticed the country’s failure to deal with female foeticide on its own and have come up with programs to deal with the problem at hand. However, if both partners do not share an equal distribution of the returns then there must be a transfer of funds between them in order to reach efficiency. However, male and female children are perceived as psychologically and socially different so the equation relating mortality looks like this: The Mumbai High Court ruled that prenatal sex determination implied female foeticide. This research goes to show the extent of gender discrimination in India and how this affects the high sex ratio.
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One group estimates more than 10 million female foetuses may have been illegally aborted in India since s, andgirls were being lost annually due to female foeticide.
Journal of Development Economics. Estimates for female foeticide vary by scholar. However, this actually goes to show that pre-natal selection may reduce the extent of infanticide or poor treatment of girls who are born. However, this model does not work for the situation in India because it does not account for the common act of males importing brides from other regions. Deals with the legal process of adopting children and the legal obligation to provide “maintenance” for other family members.
Female foeticide in India – Wikipedia
Obstetric ultrasonographyeither transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex. This is not to say that all households follow this model, but enough of them do that it results in a high sex ratio.
These include increased gender disparitya high sex ratio, lives lost, lack of development, and abuse and violence against women and children.
Evidence from a policy change in India”. Culture is favored by some researchers,  while some favor disparate gender-biased access to resources. Retrieved from ” https: A vow was made by officials to set up fast-track courts to punish those who practice sex-based abortion.
The law also established physicians who harya legally provide the procedure and the facilities where abortions can be performed, but did not anticipate female foeticide based on technology advances.
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Mouritsen, Natural variation in the human sex ratio, Hum. In India, previous research has found that women leaders ‘ invest in public goods that are more in line with female preferences, in particular water infrastructure, which leads to a reduction in time spent on domestic chores by adolescent girls. Therefore, due to the decrease of women domestically due to sex selection and the low price of foreign women because they are often bought as slaves or kidnappedthe resulting gap of imported women is from Q3 to Q4.
When families choose to partake in pre-natal sex selection through illegal ultrasounds or abortions, they impart a negative spillover on society. Dharma Kumar, argues that, “Sex selection at conception will reduce the supply of women, they will become more valuable, and female children will be better cared for and will live longer”.
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A serious flaw that makes all of these programs ineffective is that they target only lower-income households, while ignoring the population of higher-income households also partaking in female foeticide. University Avenue Undergraduate Journal of Economics. This shows that simply reducing mortality may not result in a subsequent reduction of female mortality.
The New York Review of Books. In its communication campaigns, it is clearing up public misconceptions by emphasizing that sex determination is illegal, but abortion is legal for certain medical conditions in India.
From the Unitary Model to Collective Decisions”. The campaign uses the media to raise awareness uatya the gender disparities creating, and resulting from, sex-selective abortion. Cash transfer to couple accepting terminal method of family planning vasectomy, tubectomy after birth of 1st or 2nd child. Other recent policy initiatives adopted by many states of India, claims Guilmoto,  attempt to address the assumed economic disadvantage of girls by offering support to girls and their parents.
Classic economic theory views the market for marriage as one in which people bargain for a spouse who maximizes their utility gains from marriage.
There is a strong son preference in India and this leads to a high sex ratio prioritizing male lives over female lives. Sex determination tests and sex selective abortions are prevalent more amongst affluent families.
Additionally, they do not contribute economically to the natya wealth and are costly because of the dowry system.
When having a female becomes more expensive due to dowry prices, lack of financial return in the future, educational and health expenses then the budget curve has to swing inward on the x axis. These non-linear incentive models do not result in the same increase in benefits as the inputs and cash transfers put in by the government. Population and Development Review.